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什麼 !? 動物園裡也有平面設計?Designs in Zoos.

August 4, 2018

 

「動物園」跟「平面設計」,在一般人聽來是兩碼子不相干的事兒,不過當我提到「視覺指標設計」,大家可能就能有一個模糊的想像了。

   我猜正在看文章的你,已經好一陣子沒有去動物園走走了,更不用說對動物園中的「平面設計」有印象。以臺北的動物園的平面設計為例,它大致上是Logo、指標、地圖、標誌、警示等視覺設計,當然還包括解說牌,不過解說牌則歸類在「解釋設計」(interpretation design),細節以後有空再來講講。

 

 

Zoos and graphic design, two things that people might considered unrelated in common sense. When I bring up, however, the way finding designs, people might have a rather ambiguous imagination.

 

A guess you, who’s reading the article right now, might haven’t been to any zoo for a long while, let alone having any impression on graphic designs in zoos. Take that in Taipei Zoo for example, it is basically an application for visual logo, wayfindingr, signage, warning, etc. Of course there is the interpretation board outside every exhibiting area, but that belongs to interpretation design. We will get to that in other discussion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

視覺指標設計重視資訊的順暢、顏色、辨識度、美感…,更可以定義空間、身份以及人群。不論在哪個領域,平面設計從不僅是裝飾,它更是品牌的展現方式。內含著品牌的個性、調性、質感、定位,除了滿足原本的「功能性」需求,還應該賦予更高的期待與要求。

 

Wayfinding system emphasizes mostly on the flow of information being read, colors, legibility, and the visual pleasantness. It can also define the space, identity, and the crowd. No matter which field it is discussed, graphic design is never merely a decoration, it is the disclaim for a particular brand. And it includes the personality, quality, and goals, which implies that apart from the aspect in function, it should be expected to have a higher goal and destination.

 

 

Lance Wyman

 

講一個有意思的動物園視覺設計,地點在美國的明尼蘇達動物園 (Minnesota Zoo)。園內的視覺指標是由美國人蘭斯維曼 (Lance Wyman) 設計,他最著名的設計還有1968墨西哥奧運會的主視覺、華盛頓地鐵圖等。他圖形中強烈的風格使他的作品極易辨認,也使他的地位在設計圈內屹立不搖,反正就很有名啦!

 

It is a really interesting visual design in a zoo in Minnesota, US. The way finding system in the zoo is designed and prganized by Mr. Wyman, whose other popular projects include the KV for 1968 Olympics in Mexico, and metro map for Washington State. The strong style in his works has became a trademark that makes him super famous in this field.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

蘭斯維曼在1975年即設計過國家動物園的識別系統,所以當國家動物園的副園長被調往明尼蘇達動物園後馬上聯繫了蘭斯維曼,邀請蘭斯為園內製作視覺溝通的設計,希望能與先前他為國家動物園做的設計相坊。

 

Lance Wyman had already designed identity for National Zoo back in 1975; as a result, as the vice chairman of previous National Zoo was transferred to Minnesota Zoo, he instantly called Lance to work on the visual design within the zoo, hoping to achieve the level of his previous work.

 

 

 

 

相信有搜尋過「動物園指標」的人一定看過藍斯維曼的作品,嗯,我知道搜尋過的人很少。近日也有看到臺灣設計師設計的動物園視覺指標,在其中也可以看到蘭斯維曼的影子。

 

 

I believe people who have googled “zoo wayfinging system” must’ve seen his works. Well, I’m aware that there are only few people who have done that. I’ve seen from some Taiwanese designers who have the similar outcome nowadays.

 Logo中融合了麋鹿與Minnesota的M,非常有創意地表達了動物園與在地動物的連結,也創造了難忘的視覺語言。同樣的概念也可以在其他動物園發現,例如臺北市立動物園的Logo就是臺北的「北」與梅花鹿結合。其實蘭斯維曼一開始選用的動物是角馬,不過沒多久就換成麋鹿了。麋鹿的意義不只是當地原生的物種,牠們更是明尼蘇達州最大的野生動物,明尼蘇達也是美國少數幾個還可以看到麋鹿的州,在物種的選用上跟在地形成非常強烈的連結。明尼蘇達動物園在定位上偏重於「北方物種」的展示及保育,其他不少動物園是利用「熱帶非洲風格」做為主視覺設計,相比之下顯得格外有特色及「接地氣」。

 

In the logo, we can see the M is derived from the moose, which exquisitely combines the zoo and regional characteristic, and also leaves an unforgettable visual impression. Similar concept can also be found in other zoos, such as Taipei Zoo in Taiwan, which has a logo with the form of  a Chinese character and sika. Actually, in the beginning, Lance Wyman used Connochaetes instead, but soon changed it to moose. The meaning not only represents that it is a local species but the biggest wildlife animal in Minnesota, which in this case, the design gives a stronger connection between the decision of the animal and local residents. Minnesota Zoo is defined as a place displaying northern species among the system, while other zoos take tropical weather as main elements in such design, which in comparison, makes them more localized.

 

 

 

 

藍斯維曼也利用動物的icon來代表動物園中的不同區域,更厲害的是,他更將這些icon與數字連結,為地圖帶來更好的辨識效果。白鯨代表了「1.海洋區」、大犀鳥是「2.熱帶區」、水獺是「3.明尼蘇達區」、日本獼猴是「4.探險區」、雙蜂駱駝則是「5.北方區」。

 

Lance Wyman also uses icons in different animals to represent different areas in the zoo. What’s more, he also connected the icon with numbers to give to map a better understanding for visitors. Beluga represents 1 Oceanic region,  hornbill for 2 tropical one, otter for 3 Minnesota, Japanese macaque for 4 adventurous, and bactrian camel for 5 northern area.

 

 

 

 

 

除了剛剛講的那些,蘭斯維曼還設計了一整套標準字,用在所有相關的平面設計上面。在之後幾年間也設計了動物園的海報,他先前是極少在設計中運用相片,格外具代表性。

 

 

Besides what I’ve mentioned, Lance Wyman also designed a set of typography, which is applies to all related graphic designs. He is one of the rare ones that uses photos in design, chi h makes him stand out form others.

 

這款視覺指標也被時代雜誌票選為1981年的最佳設計,不過現在明尼蘇達動物園再擴大與更新之後,視覺設計也改成由 Zubasti Interactive 所設計的老虎版本了。雖然在用色、字體的選擇上提升整體的視覺質感,不過似乎沒有之前蘭斯維曼那款設計來得有趣及經典。

 

The visual wayfaring system is awarded for Time Magazine for best design in 1981; however, after the expansion and renew of Minnesota Zoo, the design swaped to the tier version designed by Zubasti Interactive. Although its color and typography choices upgraded overall quality, it lost the fun and classic  atmosphere.

 

補充一件有趣的事,在明尼蘇達動物園的臉書等地方仍然時常可見到原先蘭斯維曼的設計)

Note: in Minnesota Zoo, you can still see Wyman’s works.

 

資料來源 data:

https://www.logodesignlove.com/minnesota-zoo-logo

https://www.itsnicethat.com/features/lance-wyman-unit-editions

http://www.lancewyman.com/projects?id=159

維基百科

 

 

作者為設計系大學生,長期關注動物園設計

The author is a college student studying design, and is constantly concerning about zoo design.

Go to his Blog 前往往他的個人網誌

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